Uvodni st.   Systematika    Primates   Pouzita literatura (References)

Nove druhy primatu doplneni a rok 2014-20.

 V roce 2012 byl jeste popsan  titi Vieiruv, ktery je pojmenovany po kuratoru savcu v Museu zoologie university  v Sao Paulo. Typova lokalita je kolem reky Renato, pritok reky Teles Pires, statu Mato Grosso v Brazilii. Holotyp samec pochazi z expedice (1997) pod vedenim Dr. Paulo Emilio Vanzolini. Paratyp samice a to balk a lebka pochazi z roku 1988 od Silva-Filho. Sebral ji u reky Iriri, Para v Brazilii.

                           Callicebus vieirai (foto J. Gualda-Barros)

Reference a foto: J. Gualda-Barros, F. Oliveira do Nascimento, and M. Kerr do Amaral, 2012. A new species of Callicebus Thomas, 1903 (Primates, Pitheciidae) from the states of Mato Grosso and Pará, Brazil. Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia: v. 52 (23): 261-279.

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Poslednim popsanym primatem v roce 2013 je komba Sciurocheirus makandensis Ambrose, 2013. Tento popis vysel ve druhem dile "Mammals of Africa: Primates" od J. Kingdon a kolektiv. Jelikoz se musi zakoupit vsech 6 dilu jsou informace z originalu cenove narocne.

Typova lokalita je Makande, Foret des Abeilles v jihov. Gabonu.  Je to endemit k centralnimu Gabonu. Druh oddelil od S. alleni. V praci z r. 2003 uvadi v deseti lokalitach morfologickou rozmanitost, tri odlisne hlasove projevy, barva srsti je vysoce promenna a to dokonce uvnitr populace.

Reference: L. Ambrose , in T. Butynski, J. Kingdon, and J. Kalina, 2013. Mammals of Africa, V.2.

                 L. Ambrose, 2003. Three acoustic forms of Allen´s galagos (Primates; Gakagonidae) in the Central African region. Primates, 44(1): 25-39.

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V letech 2010-13 se konaly ctyri expedice v oblasti rek Aripuana, Roosevelt a Guariba v Brazilii.V oblasti domneleho vyskytu Callicebus bernhardi a cinerascens. Revize vzorku prinesla popis noveho druhu C. miltoni. Holotyp byl sebran mistnim lovcem, ale ziskal ho nasledne Dalponte v prosinci 2010, v typovem miste Curva do Cotovelo, u praveho brehu horniho toku reky Roosevelt. Dalsi vzorky jsou z nizinne prohlubni Roosevelt-Aripuana drive povazovane (Roosmalen et al. 2002 a Veiga et al. 2008) za oblast C. cinerascens.

            Callicebus miltoni ,  foto: Jorge Lopes

Reference a foto: J. C. Dalponte, F. E. Silva a J. S. Silva Junior, 2014. New species of Titi monkey, genus Callicebus Thomas, 1903 (Primates, Pitheciidae), from Southern Amazonia, Brazil. Papeis Avulsos de Zoologia, V. 54 (32): 457-472.

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V cervenci  2014 vysla revizni prace rodu Pithecia od Laury K. Marsh. Revizni prace je zalozena na praci v 36 muzeich v Severni a Jizni Americe, Evrope a Japonsku. Porovnala 876 balku (kuzi i mikrosk. preparatu), 690 lebek a stovky fotografii, ziskane autorkou a kolegy, chovanych a divokych chvostanu. Po teto revizi je v rode 16 druhu. Pet druhu pred revizi, trem synonymum vraceny status druhu, tri subspecies povysene na species a pet novych species. Prehled vsech druhu je na strance Pitheciidae.

 

          Pithecia cazuzai -samice                  Pithecia isabela - samec                               Pithecia mittermeieri - samec                                       Pithecia pissinattii - samec                                      

             foto: Felipe Ennes                                foto: J. Vermeer                                              foto: L. C. Marigo                                                       foto: Crijnfotin via Flickr

          Pithecia rylandsi - samice 

                foto: Leila Porter                                             

Reference a foto: Laura K. Marsh, 2014. A Taxonomic Revision of the Saki Monkeys, Pithecia Desmarest, 1804. Neotropical Primates 21 (1): 1-163.

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V cervenci (2015) vychazi, v American Journal of Primatology, prace popisujici novy druh Macaca leucogenys (makak belolici) z jihov. Tibetu. Popis  zalozeny na 738 snimcich, z primeho pozorovani, odlisuje druh, v souboru barvy srsti, od druhu ve skupine Macaca sinica. Hlavne se odlisuje od sympatric druhu (M. mulatta, M. thibetana, M. assamensis a M. munzala). Byl take porovnan sonogram M. leucogenys s M. assamensis. Novy druh obyva ruznorode biotopy. Tropicky les od 1395 m.n.m., pres jehlicnaty a listnaty les ve 2000 m.n.m. do 2700 m.n.m. ve smisenem lese.

                   M. leucogenys- samec                                                   M. leucogenys - samice                            

Reference a foto: C. Li, C. Zhao, and P. Fan, 2015. White-Cheeked Macaque (Macaca leucogenys): A New Macaque Species from Modog, Sortheastern Tibet. American Journal of Primatology, 77 (7): 753-766.

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Koncem roku 2015 vysly v Primate Conservation dve prace popisujici dva nove druhy a povyseni synonyma na platny druh.

 Prvni prace popisuje novy druh titi Callicebus urubambensis. Typova lokalita je blizko Colonia Penal del Sepa, pravy breh reky Sepa, u zapadniho pritoku reky Urubamba, ktera take dala druhu nazev. Nektere populace zahrnoval Hershkovitz (1988) v C. brunneus. Zkoumanim vzorku C. brunneus a C. cupreus vratili status druhu Callicebus toppini Thomas, 1914. Cabrera (1957) ho uvadi jako C. cupreus toppini, Groves (2005) jako synonymum v C. cupreus. Aby bylo mozne stanovit hranice rozsireni C toppini je nutne prezkoumat vzorky C. brunneus a C. cupreus. Dale je potreba geneticko molekularni zkoumani zda C. aureipalatii Wallace et al., 2006 neni jen barevna varianta od C. toppini. Thomas (1914) u popisu noveho druhu uvadi lokalitu holotypu reku Tahnamann, severov. Peru, blizko Bolivian Boundavy. Oddelil druh od vzorku C. cupreus a dal mu nazev po kapitanovi Toppin, ktery privezl spoustu kuzi savcu, pro National Museum, z nehostinnych oblasti Severni Ameriky.

V druhe praci to byl maki Cheirogaleus andysabini. Byl to prvni ze ctyr predpovedenych novych druhu v Praci Lei et al. (2014). Typova lokalita je Antsiranana Province, Diana region, Montagne d Ambre National park ze severniho Madagaskaru. Byl oddelen od druhu C. crossleyi a C. lavasoensis a pojmenovan po Andy Sabin, znamem filantropovi podporujici ochranu zelv, obojzivelniku a primatu na Madagaskaru.

           

       Callicebus toppini (f.: M. Mozzarelli)                          Callicebus urubambensis (f.: K. Schafer)             Cheirogaleus andysabini (f.: E.E. Louis, Jr.)

Reference a foto: J. Vermeer, and C. Tello-Alvarado, 2015. The Distribution and Taxonomy of Titi Monkeys (Callicebus) in Central and Southern Peru, with the Description of a New Species. Primate Conservation, 29: 9-29.

Reference a foto: R. Lei, A. T. McLain, C. L. Frasier, J. M. Taylor, C. A. Bailey, S. E. Engberg, A. L. Ginter, S. D. Nash, R. Randriamampionona, C. P. Groves, R. A. Mittermeier, and E. E. Louis, Jr., 2015.A New Species in the Genus Cheirogaleus (Cheirogaleidae). Primate Conservation, 29:43-54.

Reference: O. Thomas, 1914. New Callicebus and Eumeps from S. America. The Annals and Magazine of Natural History, London, v. 8, s. 8, p. 480.

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Novy druh Presbytis johnaspinalli, ktery popsal F. Nardelli (2015), byl revidovan o dva mesice pozdeji V. Nijman (2015) jako ml. synonymun Trachypithecus auratus E. Geoffroy, 1812.

Reference: F. Nardelli, 2015. A new Colobinae from the Sundiac region: The Golden-crowned Langur Presbytis johnaspinalli, sp.nov.International Zoo News, Vol. 62. No.5. pp. 323-336.

               : B. Nolman, 2015. Newly described Golden-crowned langurs Presbytis johnaspinalli are most likely partially bleached Ebony langurs Trachypithecus auratus. International Zoo News, Vol. 62. No.6. pp. 403-406.

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Nova prace zalozena na diagnostice mtDNA sekvencnich dat, opirajici se o jednotny postup (Carstens et al., 2013), uvadi tri nove druhy v rode Microcebus. Navysili tak pocet druhu na 24. Ale neni tam M. rufus E. Geoffroy, 1834. Autori s nim pracuji, ale jeho postaveni z prace je nejasne. Vrati se do rodu Gliscebus, nyni syn. Microcebus,  jak ho uvadi  Lesson (1840)? Novymi druhy jsou: M. manitatra z Bemanasy Forest (Toliara provincie, Anosy region), M. ganzhorni z Mandena Forest ( Toliara provincie, Anosy region) a M. boraha z ostrova Nosy Boraha (Ile Ste. Marie).

Reference: S. Hotaling, M. E. Foley, N. M. Lawrence, J. Bocanegra, M. B. Blanco, R. Rasoloarison, P. M. Kappeler, M. A. Barrett, A. D. Yoder, and D. W. Weisrock, 2016. Species discovery and validation in a cryptic radiation of endangered primates: coalescent-based species delimitation in Madagascar s mouse lemurs. Molecular Ecology, 25, 2029-2045.

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Nove popsany druh je znamy z vychodniho Myanmaru v jihozapadni Cine. Drive rod Hoolock zahrnoval zapadni druh H. hoolock a vychodni H. leuconedys. Oba druhy jsou od sebe izolovány rekou Chindwin. U objevene populace v pohori Gaoligong v Cine byly hodnocene morfologicke a geneticke odlisnosti od obou druhu. Vysledek vedl k navrhnuti noveho druhu H. tianxing. Holotyp pochazi z "Asijske zoologicke expedice" r. 1917 (Allen, 1930). Pohori Gaoligong je izolovane rekami Nmai Hka a Shaweli.

                    Hoolock tianxing- samice ( f. Peng-Fei Fan)

                  Hoolock tianxing- samec (f. Lei Dong)

 

Reference: P. Fan, K. He, X. Chen, A. Ortiz, B. Zhang, C. Zhao, Y. Li, H. Zhang, C. Kimock, W. Wang, C. Groves, S. T. Turvey, C. Roos, K. M. Helgen, and X. Jiang, 2017. Description of a new species of Hoolock gibbon (Primates: Hylobatidae) based on integrative taxonomy.  American Journal of Primatology, 9999: 226311-15.

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Novy druh komby Galagoides kumbirensis ma typove misto prales Kumbira (900 m.n.m.), na angolskem srazu v severozapadni Angole. Znama je jeste z dalsich tri lokalit v centralni a severni casti angolskeho srazu. Jeji hlasovy projev je hodne odlisny od vychodoafrickych druhu (Paragalago) a  rozlisitelny od druhu Galagoides. Pohlavi je spatne rozlisitelne.

         Galagoides kumbirensis

Reference a foto: M. S. Svensson, E. Bersacola, M. S. L.  Mills, R. A. Munds, V. Nijman, A. Perkin, J. C. Masters, S. Couette, K. Anne-Isola Nekaris a S. K. Bearder, 2017. A giant among dwarfs: a new species of galago (Primates: Galagoidae) from Angola. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 2017: 1-14.

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Prvním nove popsanym druhem je nartoun Tarsius spectrumgurskyae. Holotyp pochazi z muzejni sbirky, z nalezu v roce 1908. Typova lokalita je Manado, severni Sulawesi. Terenní pruzkumy identifikovaly volani tohoto druhu z Tangkoko na severu Suwawa, na zapadni okraji Dumoga-Bone National Park. Akusticka forma zaznamenana take v Ratatok, Molibagu, Labanu a Duasaudara. Hmotnost jedincu je 95-119g u samic a 104-126g u samcu.

Druhym nove popsanym druhem je nartoun Tarsius supriatnai. Holotyp pochazi z muzejni sbirky, z nalezu v roce 1939.Typova lokalita je Bumbulan, Gorontalo. Rozsiren je na severu poloostrova , od sije Gorontalo zapadne k Sejoli a pravdepodobne k Ogatemuku. Hmotnost jedincu je 104-114g u samic a 135g u samcu.

                

           Tarsius spectrumgurskyae (foto: A. Masala)                                                          Tarsius supriatnai (foto: R. Mittermeier)

Reference a foto: M. Shekelle, C. P. Groves, I. Maryanto, and R. Mittermeier, 2017. Two new species(Tarsiidae, Primates) and the biogeography of Sulawesi, Indonesia. Primate Conservation 2017 (31): 1-9.

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Navzdory mnohaletym polnim studiim jednotlivych izolovanych populaci orangutanu na Sumatre nejsou jejich pribuzenske vztahy vyreseny. Vyjimkou je tahle prace zkoumajici skupiny na jih od jezera Toba. Zde se nachazi zemepisne a geneticky izolovane populace v Batong Toru oblasti. Tato prace prinasi dukazy o novem druhu v rodine orangutanu. Jmeno Pongo tapanuliensis dostal podle uzemi vyskytu v Severnim, Centralnim a Jiznim Tapanuli. Toto uzemi se rozklada na 1000 k2 v malem poctu lesnich zlomku. Nynejsi vyskyt je vetsinou omezen na vyvyseny pahorek pod horou, 300-1300 m.n.m. Celkovy pocet jedincu noveho druhu je mensi nez 800. Za holotyp je vzata kompletni kostra dospeleho samce, ktereho domorodci zabili blizko Sugi Tonga v roce 2013.

                   dospela samice  Pongo tapanuliensis                                                              dospely samec Pongo tapanuliensis

 

Reference: Nater, A., M.P. Greminger, A. Nurcahyo, M.G. Nowak, M. de Manuel Montero, T. Desai, C.P. Groves, M. Pybus, T.B. Sonay, C. Roos, A.R. Lameira, S.A. Wich, J. Askew, M. Davila-Ross, G.M. Fredriksson, G. de Valles, F. Casals, J. Prado-Martinez, B. Goossens, E.J.    Verschoor, K. S. Warren, I. Singleton, D. A. Marques, J. Pamungkas, D. Perwitasari-Farajallah, P. Rianti, A. Tuuga, I.G. Gut, M. Gut, P. Orozco-terWengel, C.P. van Schaik, J. Bertranpetit, M. Anisimova, A. Scally, T. Marques-Bonet, E. Meijaard, and M. Krütze, 2017.  Morphometric, behavioural, and genomic evidence for a new orang-utan species. Current Biology 2017 (27) 3487-3498.

Reference: Nurcahyo, A., E. Meijaard, M.G. Nowak, G.M. Fredriksson, C.P. Groves, 2017. Pongo tapanuliensis: IUCN.

Foto: Novataxa.

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Dalsi nove druhy: Cheirogaleus shetli Frasier et al., 2016

                           Cheirogaleus grovesi McLain, et al., 2017

                           Tarsius niemitzi Shekelle, et al., 2019

                           Plecturocebus grovesi Boubli, et al., 2019

                           Mico munduruku Costa-Araujo, et al., 2019

                           Plecturocebus parecis Gusmao et al., 2019

                           Microcebus jonahi Schusler et al., 2020

                           Trachypithecus popa Roos et al., 2020

Nove rody: Cheracebus Byrne et al. 2016

                  Plecturocebus Byrne et al. 2016

                  Paragalago Masters et al. 2017

Vraceny status druhu: Erythrocebus poliophaeus (Reichenbach, 1862), Gippoliti, 2017

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Jiri Pavlu, e-mail: pavlu.monkey@seznam.cz, posledni aktualizace stranky 2.12. 2020.